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2020年度藤田医科大医療科学部・保健衛生学部一般入試後期英語解答解説

(全部でA4用紙で18枚分あります。第1問のみ公開します。なお、長文問題は全訳をつけております。) 2020年度藤田医科大学医療科学部・保健衛生学部 一般入試後期 英語解答解説  複写転売禁止 第5問 以下の英文を読んで、次の問(問1~問5)に答え、記述用解答用紙に解答しなさい。なお、*が付いた語句には、文末に注があります。 (本問は、著作権の都合により藤田医科大は発表しておりません。解答作成者が出典と設問を踏まえて作成しておりますのでその点をご承知ください) Want to reduce your risk of *dementia in older age? (あ)できるだけ多く動きなさい. We've all heard about techniques to get us more physically active — take the stairs, park the car a bit further from your destination, get up and march in place for a minute or two when standing or 【 ア 】at a desk. Now a study finds even simple housework like cooking or cleaning may make a difference in brain health in our 70s and 80s. "Exercise is an inexpensive way to improve health and our study shows it may 【 イ 】a protective effect on the brain," says Dr. Aron S. Buchman with Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, who led the study. Previous research found just 45 minutes of walking three days a week actually increased brain volume among individuals 65 and older. The new study, published Wednesday in the online issue of *Neurology, is unique because Buchman was able to analyze the actual brains of study participants. The findings are a "great thank you" to the participants who agreed to donate their brains for research after death, he says. The study looked at 454 older adults who were 70 or older when the research began. Of those adults, 191 had behavioral signs of dementia and 263 did not. All were 【 ウ 】thinking and memory tests every year for 20 years. In the last years of research before death, each participant 【 エ 】an activity monitor called an *accelerometer, similar to a *Fitbit, which measured physical activity around the clock — everything from small movements such as walking around the house to more vigorous movements like exercise routines. Researchers collected and evaluated 10 days of movement data for each participant and calculated an average daily activity score. The findings show that higher levels of daily movement were linked to better thinking and memory skills, as measured by the yearly cognitive tests. And when Buchman analyzed brain tissue under a microscope, this finding turned out to be the case even for individuals with at least three signs of Alzheimer's disease, such as amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.《   A   》, says Buchman. Why one person shows signs of dementia and another, who has similar *degenerative changes in the brain, does not, is a mystery. But Buchman says the new findings suggest that physical activity may be protective, even amidst developing Alzheimer's. It sort of masks the symptoms, he says, and is an "*empowering finding" suggesting you can have some control over your brain health even if you don't have control over developing Alzheimer's. "《   B   》," says Dr. Tim Church, a preventive medicine specialist with Pennington Biomedical Research Center at Louisiana State University who was not involved in the research. "It appears that physical activity was critical to creating a reserve that protects against those physical damages." And, 《   C   》, says Buchman. "As long as you have some activity and you're moving, whether you're chopping onions, typing, sweeping the floor or even running," you can reduce your risk of cognitive decline. The findings are impressive, says research scientist Carl Cotman, director of the Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia at the University of California, Irvine, showing that physical activity may "offset the ill effects of brain degeneration." He adds that lifestyle interventions such as an increase in physical activity and movement can be powerful even in the presence of disease. Cotman was not involved in the research. But(い)保護効果がどのように機能する可能性があるのかは不明である. Buchman says the current findings are a "great start" but he hopes to look more closely at participant's brains to measure different proteins and try to identify which ones might link physical activity to better cognition. There are some caveats to the study. The findings do not show clear cause and effect. Study participants with dementia had significantly lower indications of movement compared to those without dementia. It may be possible that as people lose memory and thinking skills, they also reduce their physical activity. And the study did not have data on how active participants were over the course of their lives. It could be that older adults who moved more were also lifelong exercisers so it's not known if physical activity in early life may have played a role. While previous research suggests that people may be able to beat back dementia with exercise, Buchman acknowledges that "(う)more studies are needed to determine if moving more is truly beneficial to the brain."   Why are friends so important? Our society tends to place an emphasis on romantic relationships. We think that just finding that right person will make us happy and fulfilled. But research shows that friends are actually even more important to our psychological welfare. Friends bring more happiness into our lives than virtually anything else. Friendships have a huge impact on your mental health and happiness. Good friends relieve stress, provide comfort and joy, and prevent loneliness and isolation. Developing close friendships can also have a powerful impact on your physical health. Lack of social connection may pose as much of a risk as smoking, drinking too much, or leading a sedentary lifestyle. Friends are even tied to longevity. One Swedish study found that, along with physical activity, maintaining a rich network of friends can add significant years to your life. But close friendships don’t just happen. Many of us struggle to meet people and develop quality connections. Whatever your age or circumstances, though, it’s never too late to make new friends, reconnect with old ones, and greatly improve your social life, emotional health, and overall well-being. The benefits of friendships While developing and maintaining friendships takes time and effort, healthy friendships can: Improve your mood. Spending time with happy and positive friends can elevate your mood and boost your outlook. Help you to reach your goals. Whether you’re trying to get fit, give up smoking, or otherwise improve your life, encouragement from a friend can really boost your willpower and increase your chances of success. Reduce your stress and depression. Having an active social life can bolster your immune system and help reduce isolation, a major contributing factor to depression. Support you through tough times. Even if it’s just having someone to share your problems with, friends can help you cope with serious illness, the loss of a job or loved one, the breakup of a relationship, or any other challenges in life. Support you as you age. As you age, retirement, illness, and the death of loved ones can often leave you isolated. Knowing there are people you can turn to for company and support can provide purpose as you age and serve as a buffer against depression, disability, hardship and loss. Boost your self-worth. Friendship is a two-way street, and the “give” side of the give-and-take contributes to your own sense of self-worth. Being there for your friends makes you feel needed and adds purpose to your life.   第1問 【解答】 1. ③ What 2. ① from 3. ① manage 4. ② In 5. ④ only 【解説】 問1 「うちのお客様のうち何パーセントの人がパーティーに来ると思いますか?」  名詞のpercentageを修飾するので疑問形容詞whatを使う。よって③Whatが答えである。 例)What percentage of Americans earn more than 1 million dollars?「アメリカ人の何パーセントが100万ドルを超える収入を得ているか?」  なお、問題文は、「疑問詞+do you think...?」の構文。 例)Why do you think he is absent?「彼が欠席しているのはなぜだと思う?」 問2「私はここからあまり遠くはないところに住んでいる」  「Aから遠い」はfar from A。本問ではAが副詞のhere。よって①fromが答えである。 なお、否定文でtooを使うと、「あまりに…過ぎることはない」という部分否定。 例)The weather was not too bad.「天気は思っていたほど悪くなかった」 問3「手助けは必要ありません。私は自分でやれます」  空所は自動詞が入る。よって①manage「うまく処理する、何とかする」が答えである。 なお、by oneselfは熟語で「ひとりぼっちで、独力で」。 問4「私の意見では、大きな木だけがとっておく価値がある」  熟語in my opinion「私の意見では」を使う。よって②Inが答えである。 なお、be worth doing...は「…する価値がある」。 問5「それが彼の名前だとあのとき知っていたらなあ」  If only S V...「…ならなあ」という願望表現。仮定法を使う。文尾は感嘆符でも終止符でもよい。I wish S V...と意味はほぼ同じ。 例)If only I could swim.「泳げればなあ」  よって④onlyが答えである。

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